VM-10 voltage measure module

This module provides voltage measurements with resolution from low nanovolts up to 10 V from DC to 100 kHz, including amplitude, phase, and harmonic detection capabilities. Proprietary seamless ranging technology allows continuous measurements when increasing or decreasing ranges.

Voltage noise performance is on par with modern AC lock-in amplifier instruments but packaged in a compact, easy-to-use, remote-mountable module that can be located next to the sample or DUT to minimize cabling signal losses and noise pickup.

In addition, the module offers two configurable hardware low-pass and high-pass filters, which enable highly sensitive low-level measurements to be made in the presence of significant interfering signals. The inclusion of user-configurable hardware filters combined with the high-gain, low-noise front-end module amplifier design can eliminate the need for additional pre-amplifiers often required with traditional lock-in amplifiers. It also offers user-selectable single-ended or differential input connections providing additional options for minimizing noise and ground loop interference without the use of external converters or adapters.

Up to three simultaneously connected VM-10 modules can be used with each M81 instrument. Each module can be independently configured to perform DC, AC, or lock-in measurements.

VM-10 specifications

Specifications are subject to change

Input configuration: Single-ended (A) or differential (A-B)

Input coupling: DC or AC (0.1 Hz)

Ranges: 10 V, 1 V, 100 mV, 10 mV; seamless, automatic transitions

Best sensitivity: <1 nV1

Hardware filters: LP—10 Hz, 30 Hz, 100 Hz, 300 Hz, 1 kHz, 3 kHz, 10 kHz (20 dB or 40 dB/decade); HP—10 Hz, 30 Hz, 100 Hz, 300 Hz, 1 kHz, 3 kHz (20 dB or 40 dB/decade); Modes—High reserve, Low-noise

Input impedance: 100 MΩ, 120 pF

Leakage current: <15 pA

CMRR: 80 dB up to 1 kHz

Magnetic field exposure: Operational limit up to 8 mT DC

Size: 142 mm W × 39 mm H × 89 mm D (5.6 in × 1.5 in × 3.5 in)

VM-10 module options

Options for the VM-10 module that you can set on the M81 instrument screen


RangeBandwidth (-3 dB, typical)Single-ended operationDifferential operation
±(%rdg + V)
Temperature coefficient2,3
±(ppm rdg/°C + V/°C)
±(%rdg + V)
Temperature coefficient2,3
±(ppm rdg/°C + V/°C)
10 V>100 kHz0.025% + 600 µV0.025%6 ppm/°C + 24 µV/°C0.025% + 150 µV0.025%6 ppm/°C + 6 µV/°C
1 V>100 kHz0.025% + 21 µV0.025%6 ppm/°C + 20 µV/°C0.025% + 5 µV0.025%6 ppm/°C + 2 µV/°C6 ppm/°C + 2 µV/°C
100 mV75 kHz0.1% + 20 µV0.1%120 ppm/°C + 20 µV/°C0.05% + 2 µV0.1%6 ppm/°C + 1 µV/°C
10 mV75 kHz0.1% + 20 µV0.1%120 ppm/°C + 20 µV/°C0.05% + 2 µV0.1%6 ppm/°C + 1 µV/°C

Noise (typical)

Measured with filters off, inputs shorted

Current noise at 1 kHz: 20 fA/√Hz

RangeSingle-ended operationDifferential operation
Voltage noise at 1 kHzVoltage noise at 0.1 Hz to 10 HzVoltage noise at 1 kHzVoltage noise at 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
10 V170 nV/√Hz4 µV RMS;
20 µV p-p
170 nV/√Hz4 µV RMS;
20 µV p-p
1 V50 nV/√Hz400 nV RMS;
2 µV p-p
50 nV/√Hz500 nV RMS;
2.5 µV p-p
100 mV3.8 nV/√Hz50 nV RMS;
250 nV p-p
4.5 nV/√Hz60 nV RMS;
300 nV p-p
10 mV3.8 nV/√Hz25 nV RMS;
125 nV p-p
4.1 nV/√Hz30 nV RMS;
150 nV p-p

1 10 mV range, 10 s, 95% confidence interval
2 Total system accuracy, 95% confidence, 1 year and ±5 °C from Lake Shore calibration, 24 h and ±1 °C from self-calibration, filters off
3 DC to 1 kHz

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