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Top material research applications and the M81 modules used

DC transport

I-V curves, 4-wire

(VS module + CM module, primarily)

Ideal for: 2D materials, nanowires, organic semiconductors
M81 advantages: Low-voltage source noise, low-current measure noise

AC transport

AC resistance, sheet resistance, and AC current Hall

(BCS module + VM module)

Ideal for: Metal-insulator transitions, 2D materials, superconducting materials
M81 advantages: AC current Hall: synchronous measurement of resistance and Hall voltages; and simultaneous measurement of up to three devices in a cryostat at different frequencies 

Photodiodes and phototransistors

(CM module + occasionally VS module)

Ideal for: IR sensitive materials, solar‑blind materials, 2D materials
M81 advantages: Programmable offset voltage source

Spin transport

(DC/AC: BCS module + VM module)

Ideal for: Spin-orbit torque (SOT), non‑local resistance, spin valves
M81 advantages: SOT: synchronous measurement of resistance, Hall voltages, and harmonic Hall voltages

Differential conductance

(VS module + CM module)

Ideal for: MIS junctions, Josephson junctions, defect characterization in transistors 
M81 advantages: Junctions: dual DAC AC and DC sourcing (source at appropriate range)

Thermal transport

(AC, BCS module + VM module)

Ideal for: Thermoelectric materials, 1D materials
M81 advantages: Phase-correlated current sources, synchronous harmonic detection

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More about the M81-SSM

The M81-SSM instrument

Patent-pending measurement modules

MeasureLINK software