• Magnetic thin films, multilayers, and heterostructures
    • Particulate
    • Continuous
    • Magneto-optical
    • Magnetic MEMS
    • Magnetoresistors (MR)
      • Tunneling-MR (TMR)
      • Giant-MR (GMR)
      • Colossal-MR (CMR)
  • Nanomagnetic materials
  • Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS)
  • Paramagnets
  • Diamagnets
  • Superconductors
  • Spin glasses
  • Molecular magnetic materials
  • Nanocrystalline magnetic alloys
    • Amorphous magnets
    • Melt spun ribbons
  • Rare-earth permanent magnets
  • Ferrites
    • Hard
    • Semi-hard
  • Ferrofluids
  • Biological and biomedical
    • Stents
    • MRI contrast agents
    • Nanoscale and microscale particles
  • Magnetic powders and inks

Direct and derived measurements as a function of field, temperature, and time

  • Field-dependent measurements
    • Major and minor hysteresis loops
    • Saturation magnetization (MSAT)
    • Remanent magnetization (MREM)
    • Remanent induction
    • BR
    • Coercivity (HC)
    • Intrinsic coercivity (HCi)
    • Slope at HC (S*)
    • dM/dH derivative curves
    • Differential susceptibility at HC
    • Switching field distribution (SFD)
    • Flatness
    • Squareness ratio (SQR)
    • Initial magnetization curve
    • 2nd quadrant demagnetization curves
    • Maximum energy
    • Product (BHMAX)
    • DC demagnetization (DCD) remanence
    • Isothermal (IRM) remanence
    • Permeability curves
    • Pinned and free layer parameters
    • Exchange field
    • Magnetic anisotropy and rotational hysteresis
    • Vector (anisotropy) measurements (mx and my)
  • Torque curves: τ = µoM × H = -µoMyHxk^
  • Temperature dependent measurements M(T)
    • Curie point
    • Blocking temperature
    • Superconducting transitions and more
  • Time dependent measurements M(t)
    • Magnetic relaxation
    • Magnetic viscosity
  • First order reversal curves (FORCs)

Measurement examples

11 µemu CoPt hard disk film

11 µemu CoPt hard disk film

Magnetic tape — minor loop results

magnetic tape

Vector results

Vector results

FORCs for a ferrite sample

ferrite FORCs

CoPt thin film — M(H) for H parallel and perpendicular to film plane

CoPt thin film

CMR film — low temperature results

CMR film

NdFeB — initial magnetization, minor and major loops



NiFe thin film (3 nm) — 3.5 nAm2 (3.5 µemu) and 4 A/m (0.05 Oe) steps

NiFe thin film (3 nm)

my vs. Hxvs. θ

my vs. Hxvs. θ

M(T) on warming and cooling for a nanocrystalline melt-spun ribbon (NdFeBX)

M(T) on warming and cooling for NdFeBX

Magnetic tunnel junction with Al2O3 barrier*

Magnetic tunnel junction with Al2O3 barrier

Magnetic tunnel junction with MgO barrier*

Magnetic tunnel junction with MgO barrier 



7400-S overview

IDEAs VSM software

FORC utility software

Magnetocaloric analysis software

Options and accessories

Sample holders, rods and kits