Sensor performance

Excitation ranges in sensor tables were selected to minimize sensor self-heating.
Excitation power = actual current2 × example resistance

 

Measurement resolution comes from electronic instrumentation and sensor thermal noises. Measurement resolution is given by:
Resolution (Ω) = ((instrument noise)2+(sensor thermal noise)2)0.5

 
Measurement resolution
 

Electronic accuracy is influenced by the measurement range used and sensor resistance value. Electronic accuracy is given by:
Electronic accuracy (Ω) = Accuracy (%) × example resistance + 0.005% of resistance range
Where: Accuracy (%) is given in the instrument performance table at the selected current and voltage range

 
Electronic accuracy
 

Self-heating errors are measurement errors due to power dissipation in the sensor causing unwanted temperature rises.
Self-heating error is given by:
Self heating error = thermal resistance × power
Thermal resistances specified are typical values resulting from minimal heat sinking.
Improved values can be achieved with permanent installation.

Calibration accuracies are based on Lake Shore sensor calibration uncertainty and repeatability values—see Appendices B, D & E of the Temperature Measurement and Control Catalog for more information.

Interpolation errors are due to the linear interpolation method used by the Model 372 to convert resistance values to temperatures when using a temperature sensor. These errors are not present when resistance is measured directly.

Overall accuracy is a combination of all listed sources of potential error and is given by:
Overall accuracy = (measurement resolution2 + electronic accuracy2 + self heating errors2 + calibration accuracy2 + interpolation error2)0.5

 

Lake Shore Rox™ RX-102B-CB with 0.02 to 40 K calibration

Values given are for measurement input. If the value is different for the control input, it is shown in blue.
Sensor properties Excitation and instrumentation Instrument Performance Overall performance
TemperatureResistancedR/dTThermal
resistance
Resistance
range
Excitation
voltage limit
Excitation
current
PowerMeasurement
resolution
Electronic
accuracy
Calibration
accuracy
Self-heating
errors
Interpolation
error
Overall
accuracy
20 mK 7.3 kΩ-171 kΩ/K17.2 K/nW 20 kΩ
632 kΩ
6.32 µV
200 µV
316 pA 730 aW 7.3 Ω
(42.7 µK)
33.9 Ω
(198 µK)
8.3 Ω
(48.5 µK)
35.3 Ω
(206 µK)
±2 mK12.6 µK
±0.2 mK2 mK
30 mK6.0 kΩ-100 kΩ/K8.2 K/nW6.32 kΩ
200 kΩ
6.32 µV
200 µV
1 nA 6 fW 485 mΩ
(4.9 µK)
7.3 Ω
(73 µK)
6.3 Ω
(63 µK)
13.0 Ω
(130 µK)
±4 mK49.2 µK±0.2 mK4 mK
40 mK5.2 kΩ-62 kΩ/K635.8 mK/nW6.32 kΩ
63.2 kΩ
20 µV
200 µV
3.16 nA 52 fW 502 mΩ
(8.1 µK)
1.5 Ω
(24.2 µK)
2.9 Ω
(46.8 µK)
4.7 Ω
(75.8 µK)
±4 mK33.1 µK
±0.2 mK4 mK
50 mK4.7 kΩ-41 kΩ/K415.1 mK/nW6.32 kΩ
63.2 kΩ
20 µV
200 µV
3.16 nA 47 fW 502 mΩ
(12.2 µK)
1.5 Ω
(36.6 µK)
2.7 Ω
(65.9 µK)
4.6 Ω
(112 µK)
±4 mK19.5 µK±0.2 mK4 mK
100 mK3.5 kΩ-13 kΩ/K33.2 mK/nW6.32 kΩ
20 kΩ
63.2 µV
200 µV
10 nA 350 fW 48.6 mΩ
(3.7 µK)
338 Ω
(26 µK)
2.1 Ω
(162 µK)
±4 mK11.6 µK±0.2 mK4 mK
300 mK2.5 kΩ-2.4 kΩ/K2.8 mK/nW6.32 kΩ200 µV31.6 nA 2.5 pW 50.2 mΩ
(20.9 µK)
87 Ω
(36.3 µK)
1.1 Ω
(458 µK)
±4 mK7.0 µK±0.2 mK4 mK
1 K1.9 kΩ-351 Ω/K609.6 µK/nW6.32 kΩ200 µV31.6 nA1.9 pW 50.2 mΩ
(143 µK)
87 Ω
(248 µK)
0.9 Ω
(2.6 mK)
±4 mK1.2 µK±0.2 mK4.7 mK


Lake Shore GR-50-AA with 0.05 to 6 K calibration

Values given are for measurement input. If the value is different for the control input, it is shown in blue.
Sensor properties Excitation and instrumentation Instrument Performance Overall performance
TemperatureResistancedR/dTThermal
resistance
Resistance
range
Excitation
voltage limit
Excitation
current
PowerMeasurement
resolution
Electronic
accuracy
Calibration
accuracy
Self-heating
errors
Interpolation
error
Overall
accuracy
50 mK 35 kΩ-3.6 MΩ/K200 mK/nW 63.2 kΩ
200 kΩ
63.2 µV
200 µV
1 nA 35 fW 3.4 Ω
(944 nK)
7.3 Ω
(2 µK)
20.7 Ω (5.8 µK)
27.5 Ω (7.6 µK)
±4 mK7.0 µK±0.2 mK4 mK
100 mK2317 Ω-72 kΩ/K20 mK/nW6.32 kΩ
20 kΩ
63.2 µV
200 µV
10 nA 232 fW 48.5 mΩ
(674 nK)
338 mΩ
(4.7 µK)
1.5 Ω (20.8 µK)
1.7 Ω (23.6 µK)
±4 mK4.6 µK±0.2 mK4 mK
300 mK164 Ω-964 Ω/K4 mK/nW632 Ω
2 kΩ
200 µV316 nA
100 nA
16 pW
1.6 pW
3.6 mΩ
(3.7 µK)
29 mΩ
(30.1 µK)
81 mΩ (84 µK)
149 mΩ (155 µK)
±4 mK66 µK
6.6 µK
±0.2 mK4 mK
500 mK73.8 Ω-202.9 Ω/K1.2 mK/nW632 Ω
2 kΩ
200 µV316 nA
100 nA
7.4 pW
738 fW
3.6 mΩ
(17.7 µK)
29 mΩ
(143 µK)
54 mΩ (266 µK)
122 mΩ (601 µK)
±4 mK8.9 µK
886 nK
±0.2 mK4 mK
4.1 mK
1 K34 Ω-31 Ω/K100 µK/nW200 Ω
2 kΩ
200 µV1 µA
100 nA
34 pW
340 fW
1.2 mΩ
(38.7 µK)
29 mΩ
(935 µK)
20 mΩ (645 µK)
110 mΩ (3.5 mK)
±4 mK3.4 µK
34 nK
±0.2 mK4.1 mK
5.4 mK
1.4 K24.7 Ω-13.15 Ω/K75 µK/nW200 Ω
2 kΩ
200 µV1 µA
100 nA
25 pW
247 fW
1.2 mΩ
(91.3 µK)
29 mΩ
(2.2 mK)
17 mΩ (1.3 mK)
107 mΩ (8.1 mK)
±5 mK1.9 µK
19 nK
±0.2 mK5.2 mK
9.8 mK
4.2 K13.7 Ω-1.036 Ω/K25 µK/nW20 Ω
2 kΩ
200 µV10 µA
100 nA
1.4 nW
137 fW
120 µΩ
(116 µK)
29 mΩ
(28 mK)
5.1 mΩ (4.9 mK)
104 mΩ (100 mK)
±5 mK3.5 µK
3.4 nK
±0.2 mK7 mK
104 mK


Lake Shore CX-1010-SD with 0.1 to 325 K calibration

Values given are for measurement input. If the value is different for the control input, it is shown in blue.
Sensor properties Excitation and instrumentation Instrument Performance Overall performance
TemperatureResistancedR/dTThermal
resistance
Resistance
range
Excitation
voltage limit
Excitation
current
PowerMeasurement
resolution
Electronic
accuracy
Calibration
accuracy
Self-heating
errors
Interpolation
error
Overall
accuracy
100 mK 21.389 kΩ-558 kΩ/K1.4 K/nW 63.2 kΩ
200 kΩ
63.2 µV
200 µV
1 nA21 fW 3.4 Ω
(6.1 µK)
7.4 Ω
(13.3 µK)
13.9 Ω (24.9 µK)
20.7 Ω (37.1 µK)
±4 mK30 µK
±0.2 mK4 mK
300 mK2.3224 kΩ-10.8 kΩ/K26.8 mK/nW6.32 kΩ200 µV31.6 nA 2.3 pW 50.2 mΩ
(4.6 µK)
87.0 mΩ
(8.1 µK)
1.0 Ω (92.6 µK)
1.0 Ω (93.8 µK)
±4 mK62 µK
±0.2 mK4 mK
500 mK1.2482 kΩ-2.7 kΩ/K4.3 mK/nW2 kΩ200 µV100 nA 12.5 pW 14.5 mΩ
(5.4 µK)
29.2 mΩ
(10.8 µK)
475 mΩ (176 µK)
474 mΩ (176 µK)
±4 mK54 µK
±0.2 mK4 mK
4.2 K277.32 Ω-32.2 Ω/K2 µK/nW632 Ω
2 kΩ
6.32 mV
200 µV
10 µA
100 nA
28 nW
2.8 pW
1.3 mΩ
(40.4 µK)
29.2 mΩ
(907 µK)
115 mΩ (3.6 mK)
183 mΩ (5.7 mK)
±4 mK56 µK
5.6 nK
±0.2 mK5.4 mK
7 mK
300 K30.392 Ω-65.4 mΩ/K426 fK/nW63.2 Ω
2 kΩ
6.32 µV
200 µV
100 µA
100 nA
304 nW
304 fW
130 µΩ
(2.0 mK)
29.2 mΩ
(446 mK)
12.3 mΩ (188 mK)
109 mΩ (1.7 K)
±78 mK130 pK
129 aK
±0.2 mK203 mK
1.7 K


 
Model 372 overviewMore about the Model 372Dilution refrigerator temperature control
   
Low power impedance characterization372 and scanner performance